Product Name: Adiponectin
Category: Diabetes & Metabolism
Sample Type: Serum, Plasma, Tissue Culture
Sensitivity: < 0,6 ng/mL
Description: Enzyme Immunoassay for Quantitative Determination of human Adiponectin.
# of Samples: 1X96 Assays
Introduction: Adiponectin is a 30kDa protein which percentage in serum proteins is 0.01%. It is mainly synthesized by Adipocytes, but also muscle cells and hepatocytes have the ability to synthesize Adiponectin. Until now, IGF-I is the only known natural inductor of the synthesis. It consists of a Collagen-like N-terminal and a globular C-terminal domain (1). In vivo Adiponectin appears with different oligomers. Beside the trimer and ditrimer also high molecular multimers exist (1-3). Up to now two different receptors are known, both receptors are ubiquitary expressed, though the distribution in the tissues varies. The Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is especially inmuscle- and AdipoR2 in liver tissue synthesized (4).
The significance for the human organism is not clear until now. First studies show, that adiponectin correlates negatively with BMI and thus it could have relevance for the energy metabolism for example through the regulation of fatty acid oxidation. Beside the correlation with BMI, Adiponectin level is associated with the Insulin-Resistance (5-7) and so also linked with Type II Diabetes. Adiponectin is associated also with glucose- and lipometabolism (8, 9).
Furthermore it is involved in inflammatory processes (10-14) and therewith it is of importance for appearance of arteriosclerosis (4, 5, 15) and coronaritis (16, 17), thus the determination of Adiponectin level in plasma could serve to estimate the risk of coronary disease (18, 19). Beside this Adiponectin influences further physiological processes as for example the angiogenesis (20, 21).
Technical Features +Applications: TheGenWay Adiponectin ELISA 40-056-205067-
- is suited for Adiponectin determination in Serum and Plasma samples, expectation values were determined
- is extremely sensitive (less than 0.6 ng/ml) and, thus allows measurements in cell culture media too and in specimens others than serum or plasma
- is fast: incubation time a total of 1 hour and 45 minutes
- Single Calibrators with 1, 10, 30, 70, 100 ng/ml human Adiponectin are provided in the Kit, Control 1 is of human serum
- is calibrated with native Adiponectin and correlated to a commercialised radioimmunoassay
- uses high affinity monoclonal antibodies against human Adiponectin
- Microtiter plates are separately breakapart, tests can be adapted to individual requirements
Storage and Stability: The microtiter plate wells and all undiluted reagents are stable until the expiry date if stored in the dark at 2-8C.
Store the unused seal strips and microtiter wells together with the desiccant at 2 to 8C.
The Substrate Solution (S), stabilised H2O2-Tetramethylbencidine, is photosensitive - store and incubate in the dark.
Reconstituted components (Calibrators 1-5 and Control 1) should be stored at -20C (or below) for up to 2 months. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles although up to 5 had no influence on adiponectin concentration. In case you plan to perform multiple independent Adiponectin determinations over a longer period with one kit, you should aliquote the components prior to freezing into suitable smaller volumes. This is strongly recommended. The 1:20 diluted Washing Buffer is only limited stable. Please dilute only according to requirements.
Product Name: Adiponectin
Function: Important adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity, with direct anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. Stimulates AMPK phosphorylation and activation in the liver and the skeletal muscle, enhancing glucose utilization and fatty-acid combustion. Antagonizes TNF-alpha by negatively regulating its expression in various tissues such as liver and macrophages, and also by counteracting its effects. Inhibits endothelial NF-kappa-B signaling through a cAMP-dependent pathway. May play a role in cell growth, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling by binding and sequestering various growth factors with distinct binding affinities, depending on the type of complex, LMW, MMW or HMW.
Subunit: Homomultimer. Forms trimers, hexamers and 12- to 18-mers. The trimers (low molecular weight complexes / LMW) are assembled via non-covalent interactions of the collagen-like domains in a triple helix and hydrophobic interactions within the globular C1q domain. Several trimers can associate to form disulfide-linked hexamers (middle molecular weight complexes / MMW) and larger complexes (higher molecular weight / HMW). The HMW-complex assembly may rely aditionnally on lysine hydroxylation and glycosylation. LMW, MMW and HMW complexes bind to HBEGF, MMW and HMW complexes bind to PDGFB, and HMW complex binds to FGF2.
Subcellular Location: Secreted.
Tissue Specificity: Synthesized exclusively by adipocytes and secreted into plasma.
Domain: The C1q domain is commonly called the globular domain.
Ptm: Hydroxylated Lys-33 was not identified in PubMed:16497731, probably due to poor representation of the N-terminal peptide in mass fingerprinting.
Ptm: HMW complexes are more extensively glycosylated than smaller oligomers. Hydroxylation and glycosylation of the lysine residues within the collagene-like domain of adiponectin seem to be critically involved in regulating the formation and/or secretion of HMW complexes and consequently contribute to the insulin-sensitizing activity of adiponectin in hepatocytes (By similarity).
Ptm: O-linked glycans consist of Glc-Gal disaccharides bound to the oxygen atom of post-translationally added hydroxyl groups.
Ptm: Not N-glycosylated.
Disease: Defects in ADIPOQ are the cause of adiponectin deficiency [MIM:605441]. The result is a very low concentration of plasma adiponectin. Decreased adiponectin plasma levels are associated with obesity insulin resistance, and diabetes type 2.
Pharmaceutical: Adiponectin might be used in the treatment of diabetes type 2 and insulin resistance.
Miscellaneous: Variants Arg-84 and Ser-90 show impaired formation of HMW complexes whereas variants Cys-112 and Thr-164 show impaired secretion of adiponectin in any form.
Miscellaneous: HMW-complex blood contents are higher in females than in males, are increased in males by castration and decreased again upon subsequent testosterone treatment, which blocks HMW-complex secretion (By similarity). In type 2 diabetic patients, both the ratios of HMW to total adiponectin and the degree of adiponectin glycosylation are significantly decreased as compared with healthy controls.
Similarity: Contains 1 C1q domain.
Similarity: Contains 1 collagen-like domain.