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Parainfluenza Virus 1,2,3 IgA



1x96 Assays
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Product Name: Parainfluenza Virus IgA – ELISA

# of Samples: 1 x 96 Assays

Intended Use: The Parainfluenza Virus Type 1, 2, 3 IgA-ELISA is intended for the qualitative determination of IgA class antibodies against Parainfluenza Virus IgA in human serum or plasma (citrate).

Introduction: Parainfluenza viruses are important viral pathogens causing upper and lower respiratory infections in adults and children. The viruses belong to the family of Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses with spherical or pleomorphic shape. Parainfluenza viruses are relatively large viruses of about 150-300 nm in diameter. On the basis of antigenic differences they are divided into four subtypes, of which type 4 is divided into two subtypes. Parainfluenza virus 1 and 3 belong to the paramyxovirus genus. Parainfluenza virus 2, 4a and 4b belong to the rubella virus genus along with mumps. The virus is ubiquitous; infections occur as epidemics as well as sporadically. Parainfluenza viruses are sensitive to detergents and heat but can remain viable on surfaces for up to 10 hours. Transmission occurs via droplets, aerosols and fomites (viruses survive on surfaces). Parainfluenza virus infections are primarily childhood diseases, the highest age-specific attack rates for croup occur in children below the age of 3 years. Type 3 infections occur earliest and most frequently, so that ~50% of children are infected during the first year of life and almost all by 6 years, as determined by seroepidemiological studies. Antibodies against types 1 and 2 are acquired less rapidly but 80% of children have antibodies by 10 years of age. Type 4 viruses induce few clinical illnesses but infections are common, 70 - 80% of children have antibodies by 10 years of age. In all age groups, the incubation period appears to be five to six days. Croup or laryngotracheobronchitis is the commonest clinical manifestation of infection. Parainfluenza viruses are found uncommonly associated with other respiratory tract infections in children such as tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and bronchopneumonia. Occasionally, a mild non-specific illness is seen after parainfluenza virus infection. In adults, the virus is usually limited to causing inflammation in the upper parts of the respiratory tract.
Infections can be confirmed in two ways:
by isolation and identification of the virus in cell culture or by direct detection of the virus in respiratory secretions (usually, collected within one week of onset of symptoms) using immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, or polymerase chain reaction assay, and
by demonstration of a significant rise in specific IgA antibodies between appropriately collected paired serum specimens or specific IgM antibodies in a single serum specimen

Principles of the assay: The qualitative immunoenzymatic determination of IgA-class antibodies against Parainfluenza Viruses (Type 1, 2 and 3) is based on the ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) technique.
Microwells are precoated with Parainfluenza Virus antigens to bind corresponding antibodies of the specimen. After washing the wells to remove all unbound sample material horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled anti-human IgA conjugate is added. This conjugate binds to the captured Parainfluenza Virus-specific antibodies. The immune complex formed by the bound conjugate is visualized by adding Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate which gives a blue reaction product. The intensity of this product is proportional to the amount of Parainfluenza Virus-specific IgA antibodies in the specimen. Sulphuric acid is added to stop the reaction. This produces a yellow endpoint colour. Absorbance at 450 nm is read using an ELISA microwell plate reader

Storage and Stability: The reagents are stable up to the expiry date stated on the label when stored at 2...8 °C.

Limitations of the Test: Bacterial contamination or repeated freeze-thaw cycles of the specimen may affect the absorbance values. Diagnosis of an infectious disease should not be established on the basis of a single test result. A precise diagnosis should take into consideration clinical history, symptomatology as well as serological data.
In immunocompromised patients and newborns serological data only have restricted value.

References American Academy of Pediatrics. Parainfluenza Viral Infections. In: Peter G, ed. 1997 Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997: 379. Collins PL, Chanock RM, McIntosh K. Parainfluenza viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1995: 1205-41. Glezen WP, Denny FW. Parainfluenza Viruses In: Evans A, Kaslow R, eds. Viral Infections in Humans: epidemiology and control. 4th ed. New York: Plenum; 1997:551-67.

Additional Information

Name Parainfluenza Virus 1,2,3 IgA
Related Product Names Parainfluenza Virus IgA – ELISA
Molecular Weight 0.5
Datasheets / Downloads GWB-4A34B3 Datasheet
Storage The reagents are stable up to the expiry date stated on the label when stored at 2...8 °C.
Intended Use Research Use Only