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Product Name: Candida albicans IgM - ELISA
# of Samples: 1 x 96 Assays
Intended Use: The Candida albicans IgM ELISA is intended for the qualitative determination of IgM class antibodies against Candida albicans in human serum or plasma (citrate).
Introduction: Candida albicans is an ubiquitious present yeast like fungus belonging to the family of ascomycota. It is a facultative pathogen belonging to the normal microbial flora of skin and mucosa. Beside the yeast form which appears mainly with superficial infections, so called pseudomycelia are another morphological form of ascomycota. Pseudomycelia prevail with invasive mycosis. Although not pathogenic in healthy humans the fungus may be opportunistic in those suffering from a variety of disorders, and in those treated intensively with broad-spectrum antibiotics or immunosuppressive measures. Candidiasis is caused to about 90% by C. albicans. It is an acute, superficial or subacute, invasive infection. Acute infections with the fungus may produce lesions in the mouth, vagina, skin and nails. Subacute infections may affect bronchi, lungs, heart or meningeal. In immunosuppressant patients with cellular immunodeficiency, e.g., AIDS patients, C. albicans may lead to severe necroses of infected tissues.
Microscopy: Gram stain, isolation of the organism in cultures
Serology: Detection of specific antibodies by ELISA.
Principles of the assay: The qualitative immunoenzymatic determination of IgM-class antibodies against Candida albicans is based on the ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) technique.
Microtiter strip wells are precoated with Candida albicans antigens to bind corresponding antibodies of the specimen. After washing the wells to remove all unbound sample material horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled anti-human IgM conjugate is added. This conjugate binds to the captured Candida albicans-specific antibodies. The immune complex formed by the bound conjugate is visualized by adding Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate which gives a blue reaction product. The intensity of this product is proportional to the amount of Candida albicans -specific IgM antibodies in the specimen. Sulphuric acid is added to stop the reaction. This produces a yellow endpoint colour. Absorbance at 450 nm is read using an ELISA microwell plate reader.
Storage and Stability: The reagents are stable up to the expiry date stated on the label when stored at 2...8 °C.
Limitations of the Test: Bacterial contamination or repeated freeze-thaw cycles of the specimen may affect the absorbance values. Diagnosis of an infectious disease should not be established on the basis of a single test result. A precise diagnosis should take into consideration clinical history, symptomatology as well as serological data.
In immunocompromised patients and newborns serological data only have restricted value.
References IRURETAGOYENA, R.J., REGÚLEZ, P., QUINDÓS, G. AND PONTÓN, J. (2000) ANTIBODIES TO CANDIDA ALBICANS GERM TUBES IN TWO INTENSIVE CARE PATIENTS WITH INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS. REV. IBEROAM. MICOL. 17, 93-96ELLEPOLA, A.N.B. AND MORRISON, C.J. (2005) LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS. J. MICROBIOL. 43 (S), 65-84 QUINDÓS, G., MORAGUES, M.D. AND PONTÓN, J. (2004) IS THERE A ROLE FOR ANTIBODY TESTING IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS? REV. IBEROAM. MICOL. 21, 10-14ARAJ, G.F., HOPFER, R.L., CHESTNUT, S., FAINSTEIN, V. AND BODEY, G.P. (1982) DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF THE ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF CANDIDA ALBICANS CYTOPLASMIC ANTIGEN IN SERA OF CANCER PATIENTS. J. CLIN. MICROBIOL. 16, 46-52AKPAN, A. AND MORGAN, R. (2002) ORAL CANDIDIASIS. POSTGRAD. MED. J. 78, 455-459MEUNIER-CARPENTIER, F., KIEHN, T.E. AND ARMSTRONG, D. (19981) FUNGEMIA IN THE IMMUNOCOMPRIMISED HOST. AM. J. MED. 71, 363-370WITKIN, S.S., YU, I.R. AND LEDGER, W.J. (1983) INHIBITION OF CANDIDA ALBICANS- INDUCED LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION BY LYMPHOCYTES AND SERA FROM WOMEN WITH RECURRENT VAGINITIS. AM. J. OBSTET. GYNECOL. 147, 809-811